2022-08-14

learning chinese

subtopics

phonology

  • mandarin chinese phonetics
  • wikipedia: standard chinese phonology
  • chinese syllables consist of three elements: an initial sound (声母), a final sound (韵母) and a tone

    • initials: b p m f d t n l g k h j q x zh ch sh r z c s
    • finals: a o e ai ei ao ou an ang en eng ong er u ua uo uai ui uan uang un i ia ie iao iu ian iang in ing iong ū ūe ūan ūn
    • sound examples
  • tones

    • can be conceptualized as moving across five levels of relative pitch
    • 一聲, first tone

      • level 5, pinyin: ā
    • 二聲, second tone

      • level 2 to 5, á
    • 三聲, third tone

      • level 2 over 1 to 2, ǎ
    • 四聲, fourth tone

      • level 5 to 2, à
    • neutral: quickly, lightly, no pitch change
    • exceptions not reflected in pinyin

      • when there are two third tones in a row, the first one becomes second tone
      • when 不 (bù) precedes a fourth tone, 不 changes to second tone (bú)
      • character 一 (yī) is first tone when alone, second tone when followed by a fourth tone, and fourth tone when followed by any other tone
    • wikipedia: tones
    • sound examples
  • ipa: f f, h h, g k, k kʰ, l l, m m, n n, ng ŋ, b p, p pʰ, s s, x ɕ, sh ʂ, d t, t tʰ, zh ʈ͡ʂ, ch ʈ͡ʂʰ, s t͡s, j t͡ɕ, q t͡ɕʰ, c t͡sʰ, w w, r ʐ, er ɚ, e ɤ, e ə, a a, ai aɪ, ao aʊ, ei eɪ, e ɛ, i i, ou oʊ, o ɔ, u u, yu y

script

  • 汉语拼音, hanyu pinyin, romanization

  • 简体字, simplified characters

    • officially used since 1950 in the peoples republic of china, malaysia and singapore
    • 98% of new chinese publications worldwide
  • 繁体字, traditional characters

    • in common use in hong kong, macau and taiwan, as well as in south korea and japan to a certain extent
  • 通用规范汉字表, table of general standard chinese characters

grammar

vocabulary

numbers

  • 1 一 yī
  • 2 二 èr
  • 3 三 sān
  • 4 四 sì
  • 5 五 wǔ
  • 6 六 liù
  • 7 七 qī
  • 8 八 bā
  • 9 九 jiǔ
  • 10 十 shí
  • 11 十一 shíyī
  • 12 十二 shí'èr
  • 13 十三 shísān
  • 129 一百二十九 yìbǎi èrshíjiǔ
  • 145 一百四十五 yìbǎi sìshíwǔ
  • 175 一百七十五 yìbǎi qīshíwǔ
  • 1,000 一千 yīqiān
  • 10,000 万 wàn
  • 100,000 十万 shí wàn
  • 1,000,000 一百万 yìbǎi wàn
  • 10,000,000 一千万 yīqiān wàn
  • 100,000,000 亿 yì
  • 1,000,000,000 十亿 shí yì

ordinals

  • 第 (dì) + number. first, second, etc
  • number + 一次. once, twice, etc

other